wapensystemen met verarmd uranium (depleted uranium – DU)

Typen uraniummunitie, producenten, testterreinen, en proliferatie van wapensystemen met verarmd uranium

In 2009 maakte ik het volgende overzicht van de typen uraniummunitie, de producenten, de testerreinen (voor zover bekend), en de proliferatie van deze wapensystemen met verarmd uranium. Het was voor een hoofdstuk in een Engelstalig boek dat nooit is verschenen.

DU in conventional weapons
November 2009 – Henk van der Keur – Laka Foundation

Depleted uranium (DU) is one of the heavy metal alloys used in a certain classes of munitions, commonly called anti-tank shells or armor-piercing rounds.  DU is only used as a penetrator. It is not a warhead, bomb or explosive. In technical language the large caliber rounds (105 mm, 120 mm, 125 mm) used by main battle tanks are known as kinetic energy, armor-piercing penetrator or armor-piercing fin-stabilized, discarding-sabot [-tracer] (APFSDS[-T]). The military jargon for medium caliber rounds (20 mm, 25 mm, 30 mm) used by armored fighting vehicles and aircraft are known as armor-piercing discarding sabot (APDS), APFSDS[-T] , and armor-piercing incendiary (API) rounds. It should be noted that all the cores or penetrators of these anti-tank shells are made of solid DU rods. Therefore, the frequently used term ‘DU-tipped munitions’ is nonsense. A DU round has the ability to self sharpen on impact with armor making it suited to use as a kinetic energy anti-armor penetrator. DU is also used in tank armor, sandwiched between sheets of steel armor plate. DU plates into tank armor made tanks less vulnerable to penetration from conventional rounds.

The use of uranium metal in munitions was considered for the first time in Nazi-Germany. Albert Speer, author of Inside the Third Reich and former Nazi arms and munitions minister, makes this statement concerning the shortage of ammunition material in Nazi Germany and the subsequent use of their uranium stock as solid-core ammunition: “In the summer of 1943, wolframite imports from Portugal were cut off, which created a critical situation for the production of solid-core ammunition.
I thereupon ordered the use of uranium cores for this type of ammunition.” [wolframite is an iron manganese tungstate mineral, HvdK] There aren’t any sources known whether the Nazi’s have actually developed or used these uranium projectiles.[32]

In this long paragraph details are given about the use of DU in conventional weapon systems in different countries. In the first following subparagraph the producing countries are discussed: United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia, China and Pakistan. Then, the countries are discussed that have DU weapons in their weapon arsenals. DU is also used in small amounts in certain types of antipersonnel landmines. These weapons are not discussed here.

States with production lines of DU weapons
United States
As far as known the United States was the first state that developed munitions of DU metal. Tungsten carbide was the primary material used for anti-tank shells in the late 1950s. Because of its higher density this material gave a better penetrating performance against existing armor targets than its predecessor, the high carbon steel anti-tank shell. In response to the modernization of tank armor, a series of heavy metal alloys was developed and tested. During the 1960s and 1970s the British and U.S. armies developed and fielded anti-tank shells made of tungsten alloys with much higher densities compared to tungsten carbide, 17 mg/cm3 instead of 13 mg/cm3. In the same period of time, according to the official military history, DU analogues of these anti-tank shells were developed and tested.[33] According to data obtained by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2006), Nuclear Metals Inc., now Starmet (Concord, Massachusetts), began operating a facility that produced primarily DU penetrators for armor-piercing ammunition in 1958.[34] According to the U.S. DoD data, the U.S. Army tested DU alloys in tests with anti-tank rounds in the early 1960s. Probably the first test rounds were produced by the end of the 1950s and started the first tests with these rounds in the early 1960s. Tungsten alloys remained the preferred material in anti-tank shells from the 1960s to the mid-1970s. The capability of tungsten rounds against Soviet tank armor was sufficient. The development and research of DU alloys and its use in the weapon system took much time due to technical problems. In the mid-1970s, the US Army, Air Force and Navy focused more and more on improved DU alloys.[33]

U.S. Army
large caliber rounds
105 mm
Extensive Army testing for the 105-mm M68 tank gun led to the XM774 Cartridge Program in 1973, which used an alloy of DU and titanium (¾%) in an improved design that allowed the DU core to withstand high acceleration without breaking up (in contrast with the then used tungsten penetrator). [33] M68 was installed in all M60 series main battle tanks as well as its successor, the M1 MBT. The M60 MBT is no longer used by the US Army and all 105 mm armed M1’s have now been phased out of US Army service.[35] The development of the APFSDS-T M744 round (3.4 kg DU) was the beginning of a new generation of anti-tank shells. Until today the DU penetrators are the standard anti-tank shells. Foreign Military Sales (FMS)  have been made to Taiwan (1,000) and Turkey (85,451). The 105 mm M833 (3.7 kg DU) is an improved version of the M774 and was type-classified in 1983. The projectile is not in production. U.S. Foreign Military Sales (FMS) were made to Israel (300), Jordan (2,130), Pakistan (10,025), Saudi Arabia (320) and Turkey (22,920). A Presidential Determination issued in July 1994 authorized the sale of 105 mm M833 depleted uranium tank ammunition to Bahrain for use with its M60A3 tanks.[36]

Another first generation 105 mm APFSDS-T round, like the M774, was the M735A1 round (2.2 kg DU). This round is a variant of the M735, which has a tungsten core. The production of both penetrators ended in the U.S. in the 1980s. The production of the M735 continues in Egypt, which has an extended fleet of the Abrams M1A1 tank (without DU armor and munitions) and produce these tanks under license.

The fourth-generation 105 mm M900 (3.8 kg DU) was the primary round in service with the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for their M1’s in the 1990s. The current M900 series can be used by the Stryker MGS, the U.S. Army’s first new armored vehicle since the M2/M3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle in the 1980s.The cartridge is currently in inventory and was manufactured by Primex Technologies, now General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems (GD-OTS), production ended in 1995.[37]

120 mm
The M829 (7.0 kg DU) is a first-generation 120 mm DU tank round designed specifically for the M256 main gun on the M1A1 Abrams MBT. This anti-tank shell can destroy all types of tank armors, with the exception of newer explosive reactive armor. This round (with the XM827 cartridge as an interim design)  was designed and manufactured by Honeywell, now Alliant Techsystems Inc (ATK), based on a German Rheinmetall tungsten original. It was type-classified in late 1984. Its successor M829A1 (4.6 kg of DU), the Silver Bullet, was the primary 120 mm anti-tank shell used in the 1991 Gulf War by the M1A1 Abrams tank, produced from 1985 through 1993 and the successor of the M1. Currently, the M829 is out of production. M829A1 has been out of production since the end of 1993, with a total production of 177,000 rounds. The last delivery was in 2000. Enhanced versions, the M829A2 (4.7 kg DU) and the M829A3 (estimated on 6.2 kg DU), have been produced. The M829A2 version, was type-classified in 1992 and was produced by Primex Technologies, now GD-OTS, from 1993. In June 1995, GD-OTS received an order from the US Army for the production of 23,278 M829A2 rounds, worth US$5.5 million. Today, the M829A3 will be soon the primary 120 mm anti-tank shell in service with the US Army. In 2002, production of the M829A3 began, which is said to be able to defeat the latest versions of Russian explosive reactive armor. The contract for the design and development of the experimental M829E3, worth US$30 million, was awarded to ATK in August 1998. The M829E3 was type-classified as the M829A3 in February 2003. In August 2006, the U.S. Army intended to order a production of M829A3 rounds for years: 8,000-9,000 cartridges in Fiscal Year 2007; 8,000-9,000 cartridges in FY 2008; 8,000-9,000 cartridges in FY09 and Unpriced Options in FY10 and FY11. In July 2007, the US Army awarded ATK for the production of an unknown number of cartridges worth US$42,499,999.35. In March 2007 the Army opted for 8,000-8,400 cartridges in FY07 base year and an FY08 option of 4200 cartridges. In February 2008, the US Army awarded ATK for the production of 7,560 M829A3 cartridges worth  US$43,762,495.28. In February 2009, the Army awarded ATK with the production of approximately 3,000-4,000 cartridges worth US$29,729,805.00 for an additional number.

Production of the M829A3 occurred at ATK’s manufacturing facility Rocket Center, West Virginia. Currently, noticing the order specifications the work is performed at multiple locations. M829A3  has to replace all the former M829 models.

The M1A2 Abrams MBT is a newer version of the M1A1 and entered service in 1992. The US Army upgraded 1,000 of its out-dated M1’s to the M1A2 standard. In February 2008, the U.S. Army awarded General Dynamics Land Systems a multi-year contract to upgrade 435 M1A1 Abrams tanks to the M1A2 Systems Enhancement Package (SEP) Version Two (V2). This multi-year procurement contract will complete the modernization of all remaining M1A1 tanks which have been in the Army’s inventory for more than 20 years. All active service M1A1 tanks will be retrofitted with DU armor. Work will be performed in Anniston, Alabama; Tallahassee, Florida; Sterling Heights, Michigan; Lima, Ohio; and Scranton, Pennsylvania.[33,38]

medium caliber rounds
In 1986, the Army approved the requirement for the 25 mm APFSDS-T M919 cartridge (90 g DU), designed and developed to increase the lethality of the M2 and M3 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles. General Dynamics Ordnance and Tactical Systems (GD-OTS) is the sole producer. The M919 is fired with the Bradley’s 25-mm Bushmaster M242 chain gun. The gun can destroy lightly armored vehicles and aerial targets (such as helicopters and slow-flying aircraft). This weapon was designed and originally manufactured by McDonnell Douglas (later acquired by the Boeing Corporation); however it is now produced by Alliant Techsystems (ATK) of Mesa, Arizona. The M242 is standard equipment on the U.S. Army Bradley fighting vehicles. It is also in use on the Marine Corps’ LAV-25. The M242 is also a popular choice of primary armament for armored fighting vehicles manufactured around the world.

During the 1991 Gulf War the authors of  M2/M3 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle 1983-95 notes: “about three million rounds were shipped to Saudi Arabia but there was still a shortage of the new M919 depleted uranium penetrator projectile for attacking armored targets. The M919 penetrator had only entered low-rate initial production in 1990, but when war broke out, the program was accelerated.”

Primex Technologies / General Dynamics OTS have been awarded at least six times for the production of the 25 mm APFSDS-T M919 cartridges. In September 1997, the U.S. Army awarded Primex Technologies a $31,272,989 contract for the production of 249,088 APFSDS-T M919 cartridges (wrongly named ‘M19’, which doesn’t exist). In July 1999, the U.S. Army awarded Primex US$16,766,112 (base year total) as part of a $62,574,148 firm-fixed-price contract for 159,600 M919APFSDS-T cartridges. In May 2002, US$26,750,725.45 for the production of an unknown number of cartridges. In December 2002, US$18,360,000 for the production of 180,000 rounds. In December 2003, US$23,811,300 for the production of 270,000 rounds. And in May 2004, US$12,362,000 for the production of 140,000 cartridges. In December 2005, the Army opted for a new order.[39]

tank armor
The U.S. Army began researching the use of DU in tank armor in the early 1970s. [40] Through research, development, and testing, the Army found that penetrators made of DU alloy were more effective than the penetrators of tungsten alloy for breaching armored targets. At the same time, military researchers found that incorporating DU plates into tank armor made tanks less vulnerable to penetration from conventional rounds. [41] In 1988 the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) went public with this classified program to improve the tank armor, announcing that a new, modified version of the U.S. Army’s M1A1 Abrams tanks will be armored with DU. The first production of M1A1 Heavy Armor (M1A1HA) was completed in the same year. As a counterpart of the Soviet T-72 tank, these tanks were shipped to US units in Germany, weighed about 65 tons. The heavy armor package deployed in Europe includes DU in the turret. In making the disclosure, the Army appeared to be trying to take the offensive in addressing health concerns about using a radioactive material in a manned vehicle. The service insisted that the DU would pose no threat to either the soldiers who operated the tanks, or to the production workers who built them because of the way in which the tanks would be fabricated.[42]

U.S. Air Force (USAF)
The development of the medium caliber DU rounds used by USAF parallels to the large caliber anti-tank shells for the US Army. In the early 1970s, the USAF developed the a large gun for their Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, commonly nicknamed ‘Warthog’, the only USAF aircraft which was primary developed for ground support on the battlefield (close air support). This General Dynamics GAU-8/A Avenger 8-barreled 30-mm cannon is mounted in the nose of the aircraft, designed for attacking the top armor of enemy tanks. Just like the Army, the Air Force made the choice to use the DU-3/4Ti alloy in a 30 mm PGU-14/B API (299 g DU) anti-tank shell to further enhance the striking power of the gun system. The A-10 can destroy a tank from a range of over 6,500 m. The standard ammunition mixture for anti-armor use is a four-to-one mix of PGU-14/B API and PGU-13/B High Explosive Incendiary (HEI) rounds.[33,43]

U.S. Navy
The MK 15 Phalanx Close-In Weapon System (CIWS) was designed as a last-ditch attempt to intercept sea-skimming missiles. Phalanx production started in 1978, with orders for 23 systems for the US Navy and 14 systems for foreign militaries. The six-barreled M-61A1 Vulcan Gatling gun fires a 20 mm sub-caliber sabot projectile. Now all new types are made of tungsten, but one of these was originally made of DU, the armor-piercing discarding sabot (APDS) Mark 149-2 (70 g DU).  After evaluating a wide range of metal alloys, the US Navy finally opted for DU alloyed with 2% molybdenum (DU-2Mo). In 1988, the Navy switched to the Mark 149-4 which uses a tungsten penetrator. The Navy changed over to tungsten, because the DU round operated poorly and to reduce radiation exposure to personnel and lessen the environmental impact. It should be noted that the ‘soft’ targets the CIWS was designed to defeat — anti-ship missiles at close range — are far easier to penetrate and destroy than ‘hard’ targets like tanks. Substantial stocks of DU ammunition delivered prior to that date remain in the inventory.[33,44]

U.S. Marine Corps
The 25 mm APFSDS-T M919 cartridge (90 g DU) is also used by the Light Armored Vehicle (LAV-25), which has the same main gun as the Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicles, the 25-mm Bushmaster M242 chain gun. The LAV-25 is an eight-wheeled amphibious armored personnel carrier (APC) used by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps. It was built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada.[45]

The Marine Corps’ AV-8B Harrier II aircraft uses DU in the 25 mm PGU-20 API round (148 g DU) fired by General Dynamics’ 5-barreled GAU-12/U Equalizer gun. Also the 20 mm-M197 gun mounted on AH-1 Cobra helicopter gunships uses this anti-tank shell. The six-barreled GAU-12 air-to-surface gun system was developed for the AV-8B Harrier Close Air Support System. A typical combat load would include 300 rounds of 25 mm with an equal mix of DU and high explosive rounds. The Harrier AV-8B II is manufactured by BAE Systems and Boeing and also operational with the Spanish Navy and the Italian Navy. The U.S. Marine Corps received its first Harrier AV-8B II aircraft in July 1993. Presumably the PGU-20 will be phased out in the coming years. A U.S. Army document noted that the ammunition is no longer ‘achieving the USAF required lethality’ for the F-35 aircraft, currently under development: “Over the next 20+ years, the F-35 will replace the USAF F-16 and A-10 and become the primary frontline fighter aircraft for the USAF. The USAF variant F-35/A is armed with the GAU-22A which is a 25mm 4-barrel gun system and ammunition handling system, and will begin “on aircraft gun firing” in 2011. This gun system is currently in development by Lockheed Martin. None of the existing 25mm combat ammunition within the DoD inventory (PGU-20/25/32) can achieve the USAF required lethality. Recent training and combat experiences validate the importance of supporting gun systems and their ammunition for effective support for ground forces.” I seems that a new medium caliber round is in development for the F-35, a new round which has to replace the DU API rounds of the AV-8B Harrier II and A10 Thunderbolt II aircrafts. In August 2007, a research department of the Army is in a process “to identify potential sources capable of the fabrication, testing and evaluation of the 25MM PGU-20A/U Armor Piercing Cartridge. Sources will be required to fabricate 100 prototype tungsten projectiles […] and conduct the Lot Acceptance Tests […].”  A new close air support DU bullet or a tungsten one?[46]

testing and training
During and after the Kosovo War (1999) there was debate on the alleged use of DU as a ballast weight in Tomahawk cruise missiles, prompted by the allowed use of DU counterweights in missiles. DU ballast weights in cruise missiles, however, has been consistently denied by the US Navy.[47] The only weapon known so far that used DU as a ballistic weight was in spotting rounds for the Davy Crockett recoilless guns in the U.S. Army. They were produced from 1956 until 1963 and were used in soldier training exercises in Hawaii from 1962 through 1968. Such a 20 mm spotting round is used to mark a target before firing the large projectile from the Davy Crockett rifle system. In August 2007 the US Army disclosed that as many as 714 of these M101 spotting rounds were fired in the Hawaiian islands. Because of all the secrecy surrounding this weapon system, the US Army is not exactly sure what firing ranges were used. Remnants from 15 spotting rounds containing DU were found in August 2005 while a contractor was clearing a Schofield firing range to prepare for the construction of a testing area for the new armored fighting vehicle Stryker, which can fire the latest generation of 105 mm DU rounds used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps.. A subsequent historical assessment indicated that spotting rounds might also have been fired at Makua Valley, and Pohakuloa Training Area on the Big Island.[48]

Testing of DU anti-tank shells and training with them by the U.S. military has caused wide-spread contamination at numerous sites across the country and abroad. The U.S. grassroots coalition Military Toxics Project made a map of known DU storage, use, testing, processing, and disposal sites in the U.S.. The map shows 59 sites, including DU test ranges, among which Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona, Camp Roberts in California, Eglin Air Force Base in Florida, Jefferson Proving Ground in Indiana,  Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, and Ethan Allen Firing Range in Vermont.[49]

Jefferson Proving Ground
Some DU test firing sites have been closed and are in the process of decommissioning. For example at the former Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) in Madison, Indiana, the U.S. Army fired 100 metric tonnes of DU rounds from 1984 to 1994, contaminating 5.1 km2 of the area.[50] A semi-annual recovery program retrieved 26 metric tonnes, leaving nearly 74 metric tonnes unrecovered. In 1998, the total clean-up costs until the year 2021 were estimated on more than US$25 million.[51] In 2003, the Army determined that testing required to decommission the site was too dangerous because of the presence of unexploded ordnance. It therefore decided to seek a ‘possession-only’ license amendment that would leave an NRC license in force indefinitely, with institutional controls, but which ‘would require no further cleanup’.[52] In 2005, the Army changed its position and stated that it could perform limited testing to collect four types of data: How much DU is there and its concentration; the thickness of the contaminated area; whether and at what rate the armor penetrators made from DU are dissolving; and the travel routes contaminants could take through groundwater. Therefore the Army asked for a license amendment for an alternate schedule for submitting a new decommissioning plan.[53] In March 2006, the NRC has evaluated the Army’s request and has developed an environmental assessment to support the review of Army’s proposed alternate decommissioning schedule. Based on this evaluation, the conclusion of the environmental assessment is a “Finding of No Significant Impact on human health and the environment” for the proposed licensing action.[54] In 2008, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel said a plan for dealing with radioactive depleted uranium at Jefferson Proving Ground is taking too long to get through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The administrative law judges said the Army is largely to blame for there not being a plan in place and the likelihood that one won’t be submitted until 2011. But the blame has to be shared by the NRC staff, which they wrote has “a more than casual attitude […] with regard to the decommissioning of sites on which radioactive materials remain as a potential threat to public health and safety and to the environment.” In order to safely remediate, as far as possible, the Army will have to strip tens of centimeters of soil to ensure the simultaneous removal of unexploded ordnance. This action will facilitate soil erosion, thereby increasing the potential for DU-contaminated soil to migrate to previously clean areas.[55]

Okinawa, Japan
The U.S. military also test fired DU munitions in foreign states, not licensed by the NRC on at least three different occasions from December 1995 to January 1996. The Marine Corps’ AV-8B Harrier II aircraft in its training exercises on Torishima Island (Okinawa, Japan) fired about 1,520 DU rounds (225 kg). The Japanese government was not notified for almost a year. Only 247 bullets were recovered in February 1997.[56]

Vieques, Puerto Rico
In February 1999, two U.S. Marine Corps Aircraft expended 263 DU rounds at the U.S. Navy firing range in Vieques, Puerto Rico, which is not licensed for DU munitions. This ‘accidental’ release was only discovered through a Freedom of Information Act request by the Military Toxics Project.
An unusual number of inhabitants of Vieques struggle with disease and contamination from the Navy’s 60-year bombardment of the island, leaving behind numerous toxic materials. They suffer from abnormally high rates of cancer, birth defects and other serious diseases.

In January 2003, the Navy admitted routinely firing DU from its Phalanx guns in prime fishing waters off the coast of Washington state since 1977. According to the Naval Radiation Safety Committee 57 rounds were recovered.[57,58]

United Kingdom
From 1987 until 1996 the U.K. MoD imported approximately 2,000 metric tonnes of DU from the U.S. for the production of munitions. Prior to the 1991 Gulf War, the Challenger Armament or CHARM project developed a new armament and a 120 mm DU round for the UK Challenger 2 main battle tank. Royal Ordnance Factory, now BAE Systems, developed the L30 gun, accepted for production in 1989, and the DU 120 mm APFSDS L26 round (CHARM 1). At the time of the British military operations in the Persian Gulf from 1990 to 1991, that were precipitated by the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 (Operation GRANBY),  it was realized that the existing tungsten-based round in use with the Challenger 1 tank, which was the main battle tank used by UK forces during the Gulf conflict, might not be sufficiently powerful to defeat the most modern Iraqi tanks, the Soviet designed T-72s. It was, therefore, decided that the Ministry of Defence (MoD) should proceed with the emergency development of a DU round for Challenger 1. The CHARM 1 DU round needed only minor modifications to fit the then used 120mm rifled-barrel L11 gun on Challenger 1.

APFSDS L27 is known as the 120 mm CHARM 3 projectile (approximately: 4.5 kg DU). Development of the CHARM 3 round began during the early 1990s but was delayed by a lack of test ranges suitable for firing trials within the UK. The Challenger 2 (CR2) has been in service with British Army since June 1998 and is expected to remain active until 2035. It has seen operational service in Bosnia, Kosovo and in ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’.  APFSDS L27A1 became available for Challenger 2 regiments during 1999. Because DU rounds are normally fired in wartime only, a tungsten-based projectile [CHARM 3 training round (C3TR)] is used for training purposes. Opposition to the use of DU has led to the further development of the training round as the L28 round (tungsten). The CHARM 3 is the only DU round currently in service with UK forces. In 2001, the British Army acquired its full warstock of L27 rounds and associated desert rounds.[59]

The Challenger 2 is equipped with second generation Chobham armor (also known as Dorchester). Chobham armor is a composite armor developed in the 1960s at the British tank research center on Chobham Common.  Although the construction details of the Chobham armor remain a secret, it is known that it consists of ceramic tiles encased within a metal matrix and bonded to a backing plate and several elastic layers. They offer resistance against different types of rounds and shatter kinetic energy penetrators. Many modern designs include additional layers of heavy metal modules, including DU alloy, to add more density to the overall armor package. Such modules are also used by tanks not equipped with Chobham armor. The combination of a composite matrix and heavy metal modules is described as “second generation Chobham”.[60]

The UK also used 20mm DU rounds as part of the US-built Phalanx Close-In-Weapon-System (or CWIS) until the manufacturer Raytheon stopped producing them after the US Navy cancelled its contract with them. Tungsten-based ammunition was brought into service with the Royal Navy in 1997. The 20 mm DU rounds were phased out in mid 2005.[61]

testing and training
The test firing of DU rounds in the U.K. began with a small research programme at Eskmeals (Cumbria, West England) in the early 1960’s. Small-scale trials were carried out on an occasional basis until the late 1970s. These trials led to a more extensive test and evaluation program from the early 1980’s. This program involved the test firing of 120 mm DU anti-tanks shells at two Ministry of Defence (MoD) sites: the firing range at Eskmeals and the range at Dundrennan, Kirkcudbright in Dumfries and Galloway (South-west Scotland) near Solway Firth, a bay of the Irish Sea between Scotland and England.  Eskmeals also uses ‘hard targets’ for testing the effectiveness of DU armor plating. Between 1981 and 1995 around 3,200 DU rounds were tested at Eskmeals in Cumbria, where penetrators were fired against armor plate. Since testing began at Kirkcudbright in Scotland in 1982 until the year 2001, around 6,400 DU rounds have been fired into the Solway Firth, close to the village Dundrennan, where they remain. Environmentalists fear that the shells will corrode and wash ashore. About 40-50 metric tonnes of DU at the two sites.[62] Another 315 DU penetrators have been fired into Luce Bay, from the West Freugh Range, near Stranraer, a town in the west of the region of Dumfries and Galloway. No DU rounds have been fired in Army training exercises in the UK. The firing program using DU projectiles at Eskmeals is currently suspended, but there are no plans to close the site.

The test range at Dundrennan suspended the testing of DU projectiles in 2001. In March 2008 the Scottish daily newspaper The Herald announced that the MoD is to resume a limited test-firing program of its DU rounds on soft targets at the Dundrennan range.[63] One month after this announcement the same newspaper revealed a survey on the radioactive pollution at Dundrennan for the MoD. The scientific researchers from the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory at Porton Down in Wiltshire state that soil on parts of the Kirkcudbright Training Area on the Solway coast is so contaminated that it breaches agreed safety limits.[64]

The French program to apply DU in conventional weapons began by the end of the 1970s. In June 1979, the U.S. Department of the Army, Tank Main Armament Systems, applied for a license to export 102.3 kg of DU to France in the form of 30 U.S. Army 105 mm APFSDS M774 cartridges to be used by the French Army for test firing and evaluation purposes. The export license was approved by the staff of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In the same period of time the French nuclear giant Cogéma, now Areva, imported 125,500.0 kg DU metal and 500.0 kg DU in the form of DUF6 from U.S. DOE facilities in Paducah, Kentucky and Jonesboro, Tennessee to be used “for ballast purposes and metallurgical alloy tests.” From 1989 the supply of DU continues. Aerojet Ordnance in Tennessee (AOT) exported “65 kg DU contained in 10 U-Ti billets or ingots” to CERCA (a wholly-owned AREVA subsidiary; their main task is fabrication and supplying fuel elements for research reactors, including associated services such as transport and the supply of low enriched uranium) for “testing of mechanical properties in an international R&D project” in December 1989. In November 1990 CERCA imported 4,000 kg DU in the form of DUF4 (‘green salt’) “for metallurgical research, non-nuclear defense purposes.” In March 1991 Nuclear Metals, Inc. (NMI), now Starmet, Concord, MA, applied for a license to export 75,000 kg of DU in the form of solid metal (“Right Cylindrical Blank Rods”) to CERCA “for the manufacture of munitions”. From November 1993 to the end of the 1990s, the NMI subsidiary Carolian Metals, Inc., Barnwell, S.C., exported 1000,000 kg of DU metal to Société industrielle de combustible nucléaire (SICN), a 100% subsidiary of Cogéma, now AREVA, at its facility in Annecy, Rhone-Alpes, “for the manufacture of munitions”.

GIAT Industries (Groupement des Industries de l’Armée de Terre), now Nexter, developed and produced the 120 mm APFSDS-T OFL 120 F2 round (7.3 kg of DU) for the 120-mm CN-120 (F1) “Lisse” tank gun mounted on the AMX Leclerc main battle tank. The 105 mm APFSDS-T OFL 105 F2, used by the CN105F1 tank gun of Nexter’s AMX-30B2 tank, is also made of DU (4.0 kg).  The 120 mm rounds, were produced at the GIAT Industries facility in Salbris, and fielded in 1996. The French Commission on Research and Independent Information on Radioactivity (CRIIRAD) estimates a production of 60,000 rounds, ended in 1998. The 105 mm round was or still is manufactured by SICN at its facility in Annecy, Rhone-Alpes. CRIIRAD estimates a total number of 200,000 rounds by the end of the 1990s. At 2006 the round is still in (limited) production for the French Army.[65]

Nexter is developing a new APFSDS-T 120 mm round, called ‘Projectile Cinétiqueà Pénétration Accrue’ (Procipac), of which is assumed that it contain DU. Test-rounds were test-fired in 1999.[66]
Current data on Nexter’s DU program is unavailable. France has consumed more DU for munitions than the amount of DU imported from the U.S. As far as known from the export-licenses. Maybe they have imported more DU or they have supplied the DU from their own domestic stocks.

testing and training
In France the test firing ranges are located in Bourges (Cher) and Gramat (Lot). In January 2001, Libération mentions the total use of more than 2100 test-fired projectiles (105 mm, 120 mm) since 1987. CRIIRAD disclosed  in 2001 that France imported U.S. depleted uranium munitions for tests until 1979. Then, France began to manufacture their own DU kinetic energy penetrators. In 1991 France imported 75 metric tonnes, up to 1000 metric tonnes in 1993.[67]

Russian Federation
The Russian Army has DU anti-tank shells at least since the early 1980s. Very little is known about the history of DU use in the Russian military. There are 115 mm and 125 mm APFSDS rounds. One 115 mm round is fired by the T-62 and the 125 mm rounds are fired by the Russian Army’s 125-mm smoothbore tank guns (2A45), 2A46, 2A46M), which are mounted on the T-64 (2A45), T-72B, T-80B, T-80U and T-90 main battle tanks, as well as by a towed 125-mm anti-tank gun, the 2A45M Sprut-B gun.

The Russians also use DU in a variant of the lightweight air-to-air missile ‘Molniya’, now Vympel, or R-60M (NATO reporting name AA-8 ‘Aphid’), which is designed for use by Russian fighter aircraft. Venik’s Aviation (2001) stated that one version of this type of missile is equipped with
approximately 1.6 kg of DU to increase the penetrating power of the warhead. The missile is widely used in former Soviet states. It remains unclear if the export variant R-60MK is also equipped with DU.

Russian Army
large caliber
115 mm
The 115 mm APFSDS 3UBM13 round has a 3BM28 penetrator made of DU (4.36 kg DU). This round is fired by the 115-mm U-5TS (2A20) smoothbore tank gun, mounted on the T-62 tank series.[68]

125 mm
The 125mm APFSDS 3VBM13/3BM32 or ‘Vant’ (7.05 kg DU) is used by the T-72B, T-80 series and T-90 MBTs. The round is made from a DU-nickel-zinc alloy and entered service around 1984 (informal sources maintain 1978), although it was only revealed in 1993. The Russian producer is the State Scientific Research Institute in Kazan. Currently, 125-mm APFSDS-T  3VBM19/3BM42M (1988) is the main armament ammunition, which has a tungsten core. Informed defense analysts, however, suspect a recent 3BM42M variant, in use by the Russian Army, may have a DU penetrator.

The 125 mm 3VBM10/3BM29/30 (4.5 kg DU) penetrator has a DU-nickel-iron alloy and entered service in 1982.

The so-called High Explosive Anti-tank Fin-Stabilized (HEAT-FS) 125 mm round 3VBK17/ 3BK21B with a DU liner entered service around 1982, of which is said that it is able to penetrate advanced composite armors like Chobham. Another variant 3BK21M, developed specifically for the T-72 tank, also contains a DU liner.

The ‘Svinets’ 125 mm APFSDS 3BM46/3BM48 rounds have tungsten cores. However, insiders claim that recent variants, made and in use since the 1990s, may have DU penetrators.[69]

Probably all Chinese types of DU penetrators are made by China North Industries Corp. (NORINCO). China produces 100 mm, 105 mm, and 125 mm DU kinetic energy penetrators.

100 mm
According to reports there is at least one 100 mm DU anti-tank shell developed for the Type 69 and early variants of Type 59 tanks of the Peoples Liberation Army (PLA), the Chinese Army.[70]

105 mm
China developed a whole series of 105 mm APFSDS rounds. They are named like “105 mm New Chinese APFSDS-T” or  “105 mm APFSDS-T UI”, or named to the specific type of anti-tank gun or type of tank. It seems that many models have been developed for a specific tank or anti-tank gun or even for variants of models. There are possibly four types developed for two variants of the Type 63A amphibious light tank (normal gun or a gun with a longer tube for added range). Two of the ‘Type-86’ and two of the ‘Type 93’ rounds. There is also a long DU round (Type-95) used by Type 59D MBT and Type 88A MBT, equipped with the longer Type 83A or 83-I anti-tank gun. A sixth 105 mm DU round has been made for the recent model Type-99 amphibious light tank. Finally, there has been developed a 105 mm DU round specially made for tanks with the Chinese-built version of the British 105mm L-7A1 rifled gun or Type 81 gun: the Type 59-IIA, the Type 79 and the Type 80 MBTs.[71]

125 mm
At Chinese and Russian military forums on the internet the following descriptions can be found: “125mm Chinese 2nd Gen DU APFSDS (1999 Type 96, 2003 Pakistan)”, “125mm Chinese 3rd Gen DU APFSDS (Type 98) /98G, 99”,  “125mm Niaza DU APFSDS (PRC & Pakistan c2000)”
and “125mm Chinese 3rd Gen DU APFSDS (c2000 Type 90)”.[72]

It seems that the first round, made for the Type 96 MBT, entered service with the Chinese Army in 1999, and in 2003 with the Pakistan Army. The Type 96 is the latest variant of China’s second-generation main battle tank (MBT). Based on the Type 85-III design, the Type 96 entered service with the PLA in 1997. As of 2005, an estimated 1,500 Type 96 tanks are currently in service with the PLA. The second round is from the third generation of Chinese 125 mm DU projectiles, designed for the Type 98, Type 98G and Type 99 MBTs. The last two rounds are probably the same model. The ‘Niaza’ is made in Pakistan in a joint project with China and is used by the Pakistan MBT 2000 MBT, also known as Al Khalid, and the Chinese Types Type 90 and Type 99 MBTs and  entered service in 2001. China exported a large number of DU tank shells to Pakistan for its armored forces. NORINCO made the shells with help from the China National Nuclear Corp., which supplied the uranium.

Defense analysts expected that variants of China’s new main battle tank, the CSU 152, will be equipped with DU armor.[73]

The Pakistani National Development Complex (NDC) has developed 125 mm APFSDS DU penetrators for use with their T-80UD tanks, purchased from Ukraine. A model was showed during a IDEX 2001 arms fair in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The 125 mm round is licensed-produced by Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF). In 2004, an insider note in discussion forum on the internet that POF has tested another 125 mm DU round produced by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

In addition Pakistan developed, with support of China, its own ‘Niaza’, also a 125 mm DU round, which is used by the Al-Khalid tank, which was a joint project between China and Pakistan, and a refined version of the Chinese T-90 tank. Niaza is produced by Al-Technique Corporation of Pakistan, (ATCOP). It has been made compatible with T-80UD and T-85 main battle tanks.

The Pakistani Army also possesses 105 mm DU tank ammunition, made for their tanks with a 105 mm L7 rifled tank gun. Since China has tanks with L7 tank guns and is producing DU rounds for these tank gun, it would be possible that Pakistan has imported these rounds or even have them in production under license. Pakistan imported 10,025 105 mm APFSDS-T M833 rounds from the U.S., which can be also used by L7 tank gun series.

Earlier, Pakistan imported Chinese 105 mm DU penetrators for their Chinese-designed T-59 tanks.
Heavy Industries Taxila has upgraded T-59 tanks to the T-59 MII configuration.

Pakistan purchased 320 Ukrainian T-80UD tanks. Pakistan also employs both the Chinese 125mm-armed Type 85-IIAP, their upgraded T-59 tanks as well as their indigenous Al Khalid.[74]

States with DU weapons in their weapon arsenals

A U.S. Presidential Determination issued in July 1994 authorized the sale of 105 mm M833 APFSDS-T rounds to Bahrain for use with its M60A3 tanks. The number of rounds is unknown.[75, 76]

India bought hundreds of Russian T90S and T90M main battle tanks in the past decade. The tank was selected because it is a direct development of the T-72 tank, which is made under license in India. Now, India is also building T-90S tanks under license at the Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi, Tamil Nadu. Though India also make anti-tank shells under license, there is no indication that India is producing DU penetrators. There are, however, clear indications that India is developing DU projectiles. Indian scientists from the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, stated in October 2003 in a Defense Journal: “The [experts] panel was of the opinion that the current state of development in this area is indicative of the fact that the presently used armour piercing APFSDS would remain as the major armor killer for the next 10 to 15 years. Therefore, the APFSDS needs to be improved with depleted uranium as the core material, […]) .”[77]

Israel imported 300 105 mm M833 rounds from the U.S., a deal made under the Foreign Military Sales arrangement.[75] In a June 1994 report of the  U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute Israel is named as a state that is developing or already have DU-containing weapon systems in their inventories.[85]

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan has a fleet of 392 British-made Challenger-1 tanks, known locally as al-Hussein. As far as known Jordan don’t have 120 mm DU rounds. They imported 2,130 105 mm M833 rounds from the U.S. for their tanks with a 105-mm tank gun, a deal made under the Foreign Military Sales arrangement [78,75]

Kuwait imported an unknown number of 120 mm M829 rounds. The Government of Kuwait purchased and fielded 218 M1A2 Abrams tanks in the Kuwaiti Land Forces. Like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, Kuwait is considering additional orders or configuration upgrades.[76,79]

The British Challenger 2 tank is also in service with the Royal Army of Oman. In 1993 Oman ordered 18 Challenger 2 tanks and an order for a further 20 tanks was placed in November 1997. Deliveries of Challenger 2 to Oman were completed in 2001. In 1993,  Nuclear Metals, Inc., now Starmet, seeks “permission to export, under license XUO8643, approximately 2000 DU blank rods at 15.5 pounds each to Royal Ordnance for their manufacture into Charm I ammunition to be re-exported to the Sultanate of Oman.” [A clause in license XUO8643 states: “No re-export of DU is allowed in the from the U.K. Without prior U.S. Government permission.”, HvdK] [..] “NMI request permission to for the re-export of 15,000 kg depleted uranium in the form of 120 mm CHARM I tank ammunition.” [79b]

Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia imported 320 105 mm M833 rounds from the U.S., made under the Foreign Military Sales arrangement, and imported an unknown number of 120 mm M829 rounds.  A publication of  the Center for Strategic and International Studies (Washington, D.C., 1998) mentions: Saudi Arabia bought 150 M-60A3s, along with 15,000 depleted uranium 105mm anti-tank rounds, as part of an emergency order in August, 1990. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia purchased and fielded 315 M1A2 Abrams tanks in the Royal Saudi Land Forces. Like Egypt and Kuwait, Saudi Arabia is considering additional orders or configuration upgrades. [75,76,79,80]

In 1979 the Royal Saudi Naval Forces ordered 375,000 APDS Mark 149-2 (20 mm) rounds worth US$ 5,737,500 at the Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations in Washington, D.C. The U.S. NRC export license mentions: “The ammunition will be deployed aboard Saudi Arabian Naval Vessels quipped with the Close-In Weapons System.” [..] “The contract is not yet signed. Expected singing date Nov. 79”.[80]

In Autumn 1991 Nuclear Metals, Inc., applied for a license to export “10,000 kilograms of depleted uranium – 0.75% Titanium Alloy. Solid Metal Slabs” for the “Defense Armor Research Program
for Swedish government”. In Spring 1992 an amendment changed the ultimate end use in: “Defense Armor Research Program for Swedish Government and return to the U.K.”. So, Sweden has done tests with DU armor.[80b]

Taiwan imported 1,000 105 mm M774 rounds from the U.S., a deal made under the Foreign Military Sales arrangement. Taiwan has also recently sought to purchase M833 rounds. Insiders suspect that Taiwan may also have domestic production lines for the production of DU rounds.[81]

In a June 1994 report of the  U.S. Army Environmental Policy Institute Thailand is named as a state that is developing or already have DU-containing weapon systems in their inventories.[85]

Turkey imported 84,451 105 mm M774 rounds and 22,920 105 mm M833 rounds from the U.S.,  deals made under the Foreign Military Sales arrangement [75,80]

Ukraine has the Russian 125mm APFSDS 3VBM13/3BM32 or ‘Vant’ in their inventory. There are no indications that Ukraine has produced own DU penetrators.

When the Ukrainian cargo vessel MV FAINA was hijacked by Somali Pirates, some reports suggested the ship was carrying 125 mm DU rounds. The cargo included 14,000 anti-tank shells, among which “a substantial amount of 125mm 3BM32”.[82]

[32] Speer, A., “Inside The Third Reich,” Avon Books, New York, New York, September, 1971, p. 304.
[33]  TAB E – Development of DU Munitions
[34] Appendix A-3 Residual Radioactivity Evaluations for Individual Facilities of the Report on Residual Radioactive and Beryllium Contamination at Atomic Weapons Employer Facilities and Beryllium Vendor Facilities. US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. December 2006
[35] Cannon, 105 mm M68 (United States), Weapons of 20 mm and upward. Jane’s Armour and Artillery Upgrades, May 06, 2009
[36] Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2005-2006. pp.296-297.
Jane’s Ammunition Handbook. 105 mm M833 APFSDS-T cartridge. Feb 22, 2009
“The Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program is the government-to-government method for selling U.S. defense equipment, services, and training.  Responsible arms sales further national security and foreign policy objectives by strengthening bilateral defense relations, supporting coalition building, and enhancing interoperability between U.S. forces and militaries of friends and allies.  These sales also contribute to American prosperity by improving the U.S. balance of trade position, sustaining highly skilled jobs in the defense industrial base, and extending production lines and lowering unit costs for key weapon systems.”
Defense Security Cooperation Agency: http://www.dsca.mil/home/foreign_military_sales.htm
M833 105mm APFSDS-T
[37] 105 mm M735 and M735A1 APFSDS-T cartridges (United States), Tank and anti-tank guns. Jane’s Ammunition Handbook, 26 January 2009.
M900 105mm APFSDS-T
Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2005-2006. p.298.
[38] M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank
M1A2 Abrams Main battle tank
Abrams M1 Modern Battle Tank, last updated 6 August 2008. p.8 and p.27

120 mm M829 APFSDS-T cartridge (United States), Tank and anti-tank guns. Jane’s Ammunition Handbook, Jul 21, 2008
U.S. orders ATK (M829A3):
M829A3 120mm Armor Piercing Cartridge. FBO DAILY ISSUE OF AUGUST 27, 2006 FBO #1735
M829A3 120mm Armor Piercing Cartridge. FBO DAILY ISSUE OF JULY 04, 2007 FBO #2046
M829A3 120mm Armor Piercing Cartridge. FBO DAILY ISSUE OF MARCH 09, 2007 FBO #1929
Defense Link: Contracts for Tuesday, 19 February 2008.
120mm Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding Sabot Tracer Cartridge-M829A3. FBO DAILY ISSUE OF JUNE 13, 2008 FBO #2391
120mm Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized Cartridge-M829A3FBO DAILY ISSUE OF FEBRUARY 06, 2009 FBO #2629
[39] M919 Cartridge 25mm, Armor Piercing, Fin Stabilized, Discarding Sabot, with Tracer (APFSDS-T)
Zaloga, Steven J. and Sarson, Peter; M2/M3 Bradley Infantry Fighting Vehicle 1983-95. Osprey Publishing, 1995. p.34
M919 U.S. Army orders for GD-OTS:
U.S. Army M919 contracts:
DefenseLink: Contracts for Monday, 8 September 1997
DefenseLink: Contracts for Wednessday, 29 September 1999
DefenseLink: Contracts for Friday, May 31, 2002
www.defenselink.mil/contracts/2002/c05312002_ct278-02.html –
DefenseLink: Contracts for Tuesday, December 24, 2002
DefenseLink: Contracts for Tuesday, December 23, 2003
DefenseLink: Contracts for Monday, May 17, 2004
[40] Bleise, A; Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 64 (2003) p.97
[41] Fahey, Dan; Depleted Uranium: The Stone Unturned – A Report on Exposures of Persian Gulf War Veterans and Others to Depleted Uranium Contamination. Swords to Plowshares, March 28, 1997.
[42] The Washington Post, March 15, 1988.
M1A1 Abrams
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/m1a1.htmM1A1 Abrams
Depleted Uranium – FAQs
[43] A-10 Thunderbolt (Warthog) Ground Attack Aircraft, USA. Air Force Technology
[44] Letter to the Office of the Special Assistant for Gulf War Illnesses from the Commander, Crane Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, subject: “Navy/Marine Corps Responses to Questions on Depleted Uranium Ammunition.” March 17, 1998, Enclosure 1, p. 1-2.
Metalworking Technology Update – Fall 2004
[45] Light Armored Vehicle-25 (LAV-25)
LAV-25 – The Canadian-produced LAV-25 series is a mainstay of US Marine forces in Iraq.
[46] Harrier II Plus (AV-8B) VSTOL Fighter and Attack Aircraft, USA – Air Force Technology
[47] Answer to a FoIA request by the Military Toxics Project on use of DU in Tomahawks. 29 March 1999.
Cohen-Joppa, Jack; DU Disinfo Dupes Project Censored. Nukeresister, October 2004.
[48] Army Confirms Depleted Uranium contamination at Pohakuloa
In a media release from the U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii, the presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the training ground at Pohakuloa. (August 2007): Read the media release:
Uranium shells used in isles
[49] “Depleted” Uranium Munitions: Nuclear Waste as a Weapon. Information Sheet (first version)
Military Toxics Project, – June 2003.
[50] Nelson, Robert A., Notice of Consideration of Amendment Request for U.S. Army Jefferson Proving Ground Site in Madison, Indiana, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Federal Register, 7 April 2000, vol. 65 nr. 68, pp. 18382-18383.
[51] U.S. Defense Environmental Restoration Program – IN 521382045400, Army Jefferson Proving Ground, 1998
[52] US Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Memorandum and order CLI-05-23, docket no 40-8838-MLA-2, 26. October 2005;
[53] Letter U.S. Army to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1 February 2005.
[54] Federal Register: March 15, 2006 (Volume 71, Number 50) p. 13435
[55] The Madison Courier June 11, 2008: Panel: Plan for JPG uranium taking too long
Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Memorandum (Bringing Matter of Concern to Commission’s Attention), LBP-08-08, June 2, 2008
Jefferson Range / Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG)
[56] Use of Depleted Uranium Munitions and Related Contamination in and around Military Training Areas in Okinawa, Japan. Written statement submitted by the Shimin Gaikou Centre (Citizens’ Diplomatic Centre for the Rights of Indigenous Peoples), 29 January 2004.
U.N. Commission on Human Rights, Distr. GENERALE/CN.4/2004/NGO/51, 16 February 2004.
The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Milwaukee, WI), February 11, 1997
[57] DeMelle, Brendan; ‘Justice for Vieques’: Resolutions Passed by Both Houses of Puerto Rican Legislature. 9 July 2009
[58] Expenditure of Depleted Uranium (DU) Rounds at Vieques Inner Training Range, Puerto Rico, Naval Radiation Safety Committee, 2 June 1999.
US Navy Used Depleted Uranium in Vieques. Latin America Report, Puerto Rico, 10 June 1999.
[59] U.S. NRC Applications For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment No’s XUO8623 (29 January 1987), XUO8643/02 (20 March 1988), XUO8666 (7 July 1988), XUO8643 (21 April 1989) [includes 15,000 kg DU (CHARM 1) for Oman], XUO8638/03 (31 January 1992), XSOU8717 (17 January 1992), XSOU8719 (21 February 1992), XSOU8725 (16 September 1993), XSOU8716 and XSOU8716/03 (23 Augustus 1996)
RO Defence 120mm CHARM 3 APFSDS L27 projectile. Jane’s News Brief, 23 May 2001
Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2005-2006. p.337
Depleted Uranium (DU) – Ministry of Defence (MoD)
Corrosion and Fate of Depleted Uranium Penetrators under Progressively Anaerobic Conditions in Estuarine Sediment. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2009, 43 (2), pp 350–355 (CHARM 3: penetrator weight)
[60] Chobham armour
[61] Written Answers on Depleted Uranium Ammunition in UK parliament, Tuesday 17th February, 1998. http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld199798/ldhansrd/vo980217/text/80217w01.htm
HANSARD 1803–2005; written answers to questions in UK parliament on Depleted Uranium, 23 January 2001 http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/written_answers/2001/jan/23/depleted-uranium
[62] Carter, Dr. Tony; Comparison of Kirkcudbright and Eskmeals Environmental Monitoring Data with Generalised Derived Limits for Uranium. DRPS report 167/2002. Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (MoD), June 2002.
Postnote Number 154, Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, March 2001. p.2
U.K. Radioactive Waste Inventory
[63] The Herald March 11, 2008
[64] The Sunday Herald Apr. 13, 2008
[65] Staff Conclusions Regarding License To Export Source Material To France (XUO8464)
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 25 September 1979. Also reference in a letter of a Senior Licensing Reviewer from the Office of International Programs (Department Of State, Bureau Of Oceans And International Environmental And Scientific Affairs), to the Director of International Programs U.S. NRC, Bethesda, Maryland. 17 September 1979.
U.S. NRC Application For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment; license no. XUO8461; Applicant: Transnuclear, Inc., Falls Church, VA, U.S.A. Suppliers: U.S. DOE c/o Union Carbide, Paducah and Tennessee Nuclear Specialties, Jonesboro, TN, U.S.A. Destination (“Ultimate Consignee”): Cogema; 5 March 1979.
Letter GenCorp Aerojet to U.S. NRC, 28 November 1989, with reference to U.S. NRC export license for Aerojet Ordnance Tennessee (XUO8689), 19 December 1989
U.S. NRC Application For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment; license no.  XSOU8700; Licensee: Edlow International Company, Washington, D.C.; Ultimate Consignee: CERCA, Bonneuil sur Marne, France, 13 November 1990
U.S. NRC Application For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment; license no. XSOU8703; Applicant: NMI, Concord, MA; Ultimate Consignee: CERCA, Bonneuil Sur Marne, France. 1 March 1991.
Application For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment; license no’s: XSOU8724 / XSOU8724-A-1 (amendment no. 1); Licensee: NMI, Concord, MA; Supplier: Carolian Metals, Inc., Barnwell, S.C.; Ultimate Consignee: SICN, Annecy. 30 November 1993
Le Monde Diplomatique, June 1999.
CRIIRAD Letter to the French minister of Defense, 11 January 2001
120 mm Nexter ammunition for Leclerc tank gun (France), Tank and anti-tank guns. Jane’s
Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2005-2006. p.301 and p.329
Ammunition Handbook, July 15, 2008.
[66]  CN-120 (F1) “Lisse” 120mm Tank Gun, March 2006
120 mm Nexter ammunition for Leclerc tank gun (France), Tank and anti-tank guns. Jane’s Ammunition Handbook, July 15, 2008.
[67] Plus de 2 000 obus à l’uranium appauvri testés en France
Libération, 11 January 2001
Press release on Depleted Uranium; Commission de  Recherche et d’Information Indépendantes sur la Radioactivité (CRIIRAD), 11 January 2001.
[68] “Health Risks of Using Depleted Uranium,” Venik’s Aviation, 2001.
AA-8 APHID – K-60 (R-60, Object 62)
Molniya R-60
115 mm 3UBM-5 APFSDS-T cartridge (Russian Federation), Tank and Anti-Tank guns
Jane’s Ammunition Handbook, March 20, 2008.
T-62 Main Battle Tank
[69] Russian 125 mm smoothbore rounds
125 mm APFSDS rounds
OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide 1999 – 2001
[70] Warford, Jim; The New Chinese Type 98 MBT: A Second Look Reveals More Details.
[71] Worldwide Equipment Guide. p4-4.3
Possible Russian Weapons for T-63A/T-99 Amphibious Tank
105 mm munitions
Tank Protection Levels
China upgrades Type 59 tank. Jane’s Defence Weekly – 28 January, 2004.
Chinese tanks
Type 59D – 105 mm rounds
Army Guide, Type 59
[72] http://club.mil.news.sina.com.cn/thread-206-8-43.html
[73] Armada International 6/2001. p. 78
The tank can fire DU rounds. ZTZ99 Main Battle Tank, China
Chinese CSU 152 MBT. Jane’s Armour and Artillery, Feb 16, 2009
[74] Pakistan joins DU producer nations, 9 May 2001
PAKDEF info 2004
ACIG Special Reports – Highlights from IDEAS 2002 – 27 Dec 2002
Defence Production of Pakistan
[75] M833
Jane’s Ammunition Handbook 2005-2006. pp.296-297
[76] M-829 and M-833 depleted uranium anti-tank ammunition; sale to Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait (Presidential Determination No. 94-37 of July 19, 1994), 38549.
FEDERAL REGISTER INDEX, January–December, 1994
[77] Mishra, S.N. et al., Technological Forecasting Applications: Framework and Case Study on Combat Vehicles. Defence Science Journal, Vol. 53, No. 4, October 2003, pp. 371-391
[78] Challenger 1: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Challenger_1
[79] Foreign Military Sales Program – General Information. DoD 5105.38-M, 3 October, 2003
M1 Abrams Main Battle Tank
M1 Abrams: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M1_Abrams
[79b] Challenger 2 Main Battle Tank, United Kingdom
Challenger 2
Letter Nuclear Metals Inc. from the Supervisor Data Management, Health Physics Department, to a Licensing Officer at US NRC Export/Import and International Safeguards Office of International Programs, Washington, D.C., 23 February 1993.
[80] Cordesman, Anthony H.; Trends in the Military Balance and Arms Sales in the Southern Gulf States After the Gulf War: 1990- 1993. Middle East Dynamic Net Assessment, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DC, 26 January, 1998. p.38
U.S. NRC Application For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment, license no. XUO8475; Applicant: Department of the Navy, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C.; First Shipment Scheduled: Dec. 1980, Final Shipment Scheduled: Sep. 1981;
Ultimate Consignee: Commander Royal Saudi Naval Forces, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Intermediate Consignee: Commanding Officer U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Yorktown, VA, U.S.A.;
Contract Suppliers: Honeywell Corporation and Olin Corporation. September 1979.
[80b] Application For License To Export Nuclear Material And Equipment, license no’s XSOU8713  and XSOU8713/01;  Applicant / Supplier: NMI, Concord, MA; Ultimate Consignee: Forsvarets Materielverk, Stockholm, Sweden (in amendment 01 changed into Intermediate Consignee), new Ultimate Consignee: AEA Technology, B35 Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire, U.K.; 25 September 1991 and 10 April 1992.
[81] I am quite sure about the sale of the M774 round to Taiwan and Turkey and the numbers. It was mentioned in a Jane’s Ammunition Handbook in the early 1990’s.
Commerce Business Daily Issue of February 27, 1995, PSA #1291
[82] Ecoterra Press Release on the Global Stand-off with Somali Pirates of the Ukrainian MV FAINA. October 06, 2008. http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/76627

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